This article illustrates the reoords of the fight for the privilege of teaching Polish literature under severe oppression. Polish teachers considered their national literature as a shield which successfully protected and stimulated the spirit of the nation. As we know, literature provides "us" with a great variety of customs and traditions, expresses patriotic feeling, displays people's aspirations, presents heroes of great moral independence, cultivates, improves and widely spreads the motber tongue. ; The authors of school-books on history of literature knew that by presenting the writers in an interesting way they could foster further reading and keep the national feeling alive. Therefore, they tried to portray the writers by exposing their unique, individual character and personality to set a pattern for the reader to follow and admire. The teachers of Polish wished their pupils to trust the writers and literature which is a moral, patriotic and national heritage to be defended and preserved.