The subject of this paper is the analysis of theoretical conditions of opinions and cogitations on knowledge and teaching literature in Polish schools beginning from the half of the nineteenth century. The authoress investigates the evolution of standpoints and opinions under the principle of the choice of contents and ways of teaching literature, which occured and still occure in the consciousness of theorists and practicians of teaching under the influence of research-tendencies within the science of literature and within pedagogical sciences in the course of the century. ; The second phase initiated by Mr. K. Wóycicki in 1921 is characterization of methodological cogitation to enunciations by literatury science, as shown in the papers by Mr. F. Próchnicki and Mr. P. Chmielowski. ; The second phase initiated by Mr. K. Wóycicki in 1921 is characterized by an increase of interest in enunciations of pedagogical sciences, by a trend to motivate the methodological instructions by arguments of literary-trend-discipline as well as by pedagogical and psychological reasons. Both currents of thinking exert a considerable influence on the understanding and definition of tasks and subject of methodics and connect its scientific status with the methodology of literary research or with praxiological sciences. At present there are heated discussions between the advocates of both currents. ; The authoress is of the opinion that the praxiological priciples of literary didactics divide the subject, tasks and research methods of literatures and literary didactics.The first of sciences decides on the system and structure of literary knowledge, on methods and technics of its analysis, interpretation and valuation, elaborated on the base of a certain theory about a literary work and historical process as material for education in school. ; Literary didactics as an educational theory form a system of enunciations about principles, conditions, measures and activities for the management of the process of teaching and learning literature and tend to wards socially accepted purposes of education.