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This paper reviews the use of "set-membership methods" in "fault diagnosis" (FD) and "fault tolerant control" (FTC). Setmembership methods use a deterministic unknown-but-bounded description of noise and parametric uncertainty ("intervalmodels"). These methods aims at checking the consistency between observed and predicted behaviour by using simple sets to approximate the exact set of possible behaviour (in the parameter or the state space) ; When an inconsistency is detected between the measured and predicted behaviours obtained using a faultless system model, a fault can be indicated. Otherwise, nothing can be stated. The same principle can be used to identify interval models for fault detection and to develop methods for fault tolerance evaluation. Finally, some real applications will be used to illustrate the usefulness and performance of set-membership methods for FD and FTC.